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Hindi transliteration rules

I use Baraha software to transliterate from English to Hindi. Here are the rules:

Writing Devanagari words using Baraha transliteration scheme is as easy as writing our names in English. मेरा भारत महान can be written as merA bhArat mahAn. Devanagari script used for Sanskrit, Hindi, and Marathi languages are supported in Baraha. Other languages such as Konkani, Sindhi and Nepali that use devanagari script, can also be used. The transliteration rules are shown below with examples.

See: Transliteration Examples
अ = a, आ = A,aa, इ = i, ई = I,ee, उ = u, ऊ = U,oo, ऋ = Ru, ॠ = RU, ऌ = ~Lu, ॡ = ~LU, ऍ = ~e, ऎ (short ‘e’) = E, ए = e, ऐ = ai, ऑ = ~o, ऒ (short ‘o’) = O, ओ = o, औ = au,ou

ँ = ~M
ं = M
ः = H

क = k, ख = K,kh, ग = g, घ = G,gh, ङ = ~g
च = c,ch, छ = C,Ch, ज = j, झ = J,jh, ञ = ~j
ट = T, ठ = Th, ड = D, ढ = Dh, ण = N
त = t, थ = th, द = d, ध = dh, न = n, ऩ = nx
प = p, फ = P,ph, ब = b, भ = B,bh, म = m

य = y, र = r, ऱ = rx, ल = l, ळ = L, ऴ = Lx, व = v,w, श = S,sh, ष = Sh, स = s, ह = h,~h

ऽ = & (avagraha)
ॐ = oum
़ = x (nukta)
Zero Width Joiner = ^
Zero Width Non Joiner = ^^

Extended Characters:
The consonants with a nukta (dot) under them can be obtained by using the ‘x’ character following the respective consonants as shown below. These characters are mainly used for words borrowed from other languages.

क़ = kx —-> हक़ीक़त = hakxIkxat
ख़ = Kx —-> ख़ुश = Kxush
ग़ = gx —-> पैग़ाम = paigxAm
ज़ = z,jx —-> बज़ार = bazAr(bajxAr)
ड़ = Dx —-> खिलाड़ि = KilADxi
ढ़ = Dhx —-> सीढ़ी = sIDhxI
फ़ = f,Px —> काफ़ि = kAfi(kAPxi)
य़ = Y,yx

Punctuation Marks:
The English symbols [ ] { } ( ) – + * / = । ; : . , ” ? ! % \ ~ _ translate into the same symbols in Devanagari also.

Quotation Marks:
` ‘ characters are converted to single smart quotes(` ‘) characters. We can get double smart quotes(“ ”) by using them twice.

~ Usage:
‘~’ character when used with other characters form a different character as shown below.

~~ = ~
~@ = @
~# = #
~$ = $
~& = &
~^ = ^
~g = ङ
~j = ञ
~h = ह
~e = ऍ
~o = ऑ
~M = ँ

When a consonant character is followed by a vowel character, it results in a live consonant.

ka kA ki kI ku kU kRu kRU klRu klRU k~e ke kE kai k~o ko kO kau kaM kaH
क का कि की कु कू कृ कॄ क्लृ क्लॄ कॅ के कॆ कै कॉ को कॊ कौ कं कः
bhAShAsu mukhyA madhurA divyA gIrvANabhAratI.
भाषासु मुख्या मधुरा दिव्या गीर्वाणभारती.

Transliteration for Hindi and Marathi languages are the same. In the Hindi/Marati transliteration, an implicit ‘a’ matra is assumed for the last consonant of the word. But, in Sanskrit transilteraion, ‘a’ matra has to be explicitely specified for the last consonant of the word. Otherwise, the halant sign would be used for the same. This is the only difference between Hindi/Marathi and Sanskrit transliteration.

k,c,T,t,p –> क्,च्,ट्,त्,प्
k,c,T,t,p –> ka,ca,Ta,ta,pa –> क,च,ट,त,प

When two or more consecutive consonants appear in the input, they make a consonant conjunct. The last consonant takes the full form and the preceding consonants become half consonants.

nyAy – न्याय

`ह’ consonant can be written in two ways; ‘h’, ‘~h’. If you want to use a `ह’ in conjuncts where the first consonant is ‘k’, ‘g’, ‘t’, ‘d’, etc, you have to use ‘~h’ instead of of ‘h’.

bakkiMghAm = बक्किंघाम
bakkiMg~hAm = बक्किंग्हाम

When ‘rx’ (ऱ) consonant comes in a consonant conjunct, it forms Marathi half-ra (eyelash form).

karaNArxyA = करणाऱ्या

ZWJ, ZWNJ characters:

^ = ZWJ (zero width joiner)
^^ = ZWNJ (zero width non joiner)

Usually when a consonant cluster (two or more consecutive consonants) occurs, it will be rendered as a ligature if that is available in the font. The ZWJ and ZWNJ can be used to produce an alternate rendering of the ligatures.

If a consonant is followed by the ZWJ, half-form of the consonant is formed.

rakShaNa – रक्षण
rak^ShaNa – रक्‍षण
shakti – शक्ति
shak^ti – शक्‍ति

If a dead consonant (consonant with halant symbol) is required, the ZWNJ character should be used after the consonant.

rAj^^kumAr – राज्‌कुमार
rAjkumAr^^ – राज्कुमार्‌

If two English characters are making one Devanagari vowel (ex: ai, ou), then, ZWJ or ZWNJ character can be used to separate them into different vowels.

iMDiyainfo = इंडियैन्फ़ो
iMDiya^info = इंडिय‍इन्फ़ो
iMDiya^^info = इंडिय‌इन्फ़ो

Vedic Symbols:
@, #, and $ symbols are transliterated into anudatta, udatta and swarita respectively. Vedic symbols are available in “BRH Devanagari Extra” font. The gu, ggu,gM symbols can be obtained as independent glyphs as show below.

@ = ॒ (anudatta)
# = ॑ (udatta)
$ = ॓ (swarita)
#f1; = ñ (gu)
#f2; = ò (ggu)
#f3; = ó (gM)
#f3;#e8;= óè (gM)


sa@hasra# SIrShA@ puru#ShaH | sa@ha@srA@kShaH sahasra#pAt | sa bhUmi#M vi@Svato# vRu@tvA | atya@tiShThaddaSAMgu@lam | puru#Sha e@vedagM sarvam$ |

स॒हस्र॑ शीर्षा॒ पुरु॑षः । स॒ह॒स्रा॒क्षः सहस्र॑पात् । स भूमि॑ं वि॒श्वतो॑ वृ॒त्वा । अत्य॒तिष्ठद्दशांगु॒लम् । पुरु॑ष ए॒वेदग्ं सर्वम्॓ ।

Laghu, Guru symbols:
‘q’ and ‘Q’ characters represent the laghu, guru symbols respectively, used in Devanagari prosody. These symbols are available in “BRH Devanagari Extra” font.

q = (लघु)
Q = (गुरु)

yaq mAQ tAQ rAQ jaq bhAQ naq saq laq gaQM
य मा ता रा ज भा न स ल गं

BRH Devanagari Extra font consists of the same characters that are in the BRH Devanagari font. The BRH Devanagari Extra font has more vertical space between the characters in order to accommodate the vedic and laghu, guru symbols.

Independent Glyphs:
In some special cases, it may be required to show specific glyphs in the fonts. They can be obtained by specifying the hex value of the glyph code. This value should be in the range 0x0000 – 0xFFFF (0 – 65536). If the value is between 0x00 – 0xFF (0 – 255), then it represents the glyph code of a font. If the value is 0x100 – 0xFFFF (256 – 65536), then it represents a unicode character. In Baraha editor, the UNICODE characters are not supported and hence shown as ‘?’ symbol. But, when the document is exported to UNICODE format, these UNICODE characters will be retained.

#46; = F
#5a; = Z
#c85; = ಅ
#0905; = अ

Roman Numerals:
All Baraha fonts have Indian language numerals in the place of roman numerals. For example, the “BRH Devanagari” font has Devanagari numerals. If roman numerals are required, you have to use either “BRH Devanagari RN” font or switch as shown below.